Monday, August 24, 2020

Much Ado about nothing Essay Example

A lot of excitement about something that is not important Paper A lot of excitement about something that is not important was written in 1600 by William Shakespeare. The play is set in Messina, Sicily anyway it shows run of the mill English satire qualities for that time. I locate this surprising in light of the fact that very few individuals went a long way from home. Connections are appeared in different manners all through the play utilizing subjects, for example, love, sentiment and male centric culture. The primary connections which are depicted are among Hero and Claudio and Beatrice and Benedick. Act two scene one is the conceal ball. Discussions happen between various couples; this causes the scene to appear to be energetic and gives a feeling of development. The character Beatrice is pulled in to Benedick. Anyway Shakespeare befuddles the crowd by having Beatrice pass affront to Benedick, concealing her genuine sentiments. Beatrice says to Benedick why he is the Princes buffoon, a dull blockhead; just his blessing is in formulating inconceivable criticisms. Beatrice is prodding Benedick with the goal that her genuine emotions towards him are disguised. Wear John appears to purposely attempt to mess up the connection among Hero and Claudio by guaranteeing how canst thou cross this marriage? Wear John is indicating his aversion for the marriage his sibling organized. This is on the grounds that Don John is desirous of his siblings higher status and achievement. Since he is ill-conceived, he does what he can to mess up his sibling and his companions. Act four scene one, the wedding scene, begins with the marriage of Hero and Claudio, who are truly infatuated. We will compose a custom article test on Much Ado about nothing explicitly for you for just $16.38 $13.9/page Request now We will compose a custom exposition test on Much Ado about nothing explicitly for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Recruit Writer We will compose a custom exposition test on Much Ado about nothing explicitly for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Recruit Writer Anyway the wedding doesn't go as arranged as Claudio was deceived by Don John into trusting Hero had not been unwavering the earlier night. Claudio uncovers his savage side by making this reality known in broad daylight at the wedding, disrespecting Hero and her family. He includes further affront by saying give not this spoiled orange to your companion; this is a similitude guaranteeing Hero is spoiled within however apparently she shows up sweet which adds to the proceeding with topic of appearance versus reality. Claudio likewise calls her an endorsed wanton which truly implies prostitute. Saint endeavors to recover her guiltlessness by noting I conversed with no man at that hour, my master however in any case doesn't safeguard herself. This is with regards to the conduct of ladies around then who were relied upon to be uninvolved and compliant. Leonato decides to accept the allegations; he shows no kindness for his own kid and wishes her dead by expressing demise is the most attractive spread for her disgrace that might be wanted. This shows father/little girl connections werent as loose as they are currently as the little girl had everything gotten ready for her by the dad. Additionally the statement shows that language was significantly more sensational in Shakespearian occasions. This likewise helps us to remember Shakespeares Romeo Juliet where Juliets father Lord Capulet rushed to repudiate her when she conflicted with his promise. Further on in act four Benedick says to Beatrice I do cherish nothing on the planet so well as you and in the long run in spite of her fights against marriage and connections, Beatrice recognizes her covered love for Benedick by saying I love you with such a large amount of my heart that none is left to dissent. Beatrice at that point requests that Benedick Kill Claudio in vengeance for the disgrace dispensed upon her cousin Hero. At the point when Benedick rejects she guarantees that he doesn't cherish her and that they must be companions. Beatrice was trying Benedick to discover how far he was eager to go to demonstrate his affection for her. This likewise shows the degree individuals needed to go to in those days to maintain family respect. Likewise in this scene Beatrice pronounces O God that I were a man! I would eat his heart in the commercial center. The citation gives her abhorrence for Claudio and what he did to her cousin and that she needs Claudio to be mortified freely simply like Hero. The statement additionally shows that it was not viewed as a womans spot to differ with a man. She rehashes a few times her desire to take care of business which features the absence of intensity ladies had. Shakespeare has demonstrated that in Much Ado About Nothing the play has an ethical setting where ladies were required to be ladies at marriage. Shakespeare has utilized some graceful language, especially in assertions of adoration between characters; he does this by changing among section and writing. There is additionally incongruity and diversion as Beatrices objection to marriage, which totally changes when the connection among her and Benedick develops. Show review just The above see is unformatted content This understudy composed bit of work is one of numerous that can be found in our GCSE Other Poets segment. 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Saturday, August 22, 2020

4 Paragraph Essay on Woodrow Wilson free essay sample

In the year 1916 Wilson was reappointed and started his second term easily. On April sixth 1917 Wilson broke his guarantee and the U. S entered WW1 pronouncing war on Germany for sinking a U. S dealer transport executing 128 Americans. This was an extremely upsetting and impolite act towards the U. S. Woodrow Wilson guaranteed the individuals of America that he would keep people groups children out of war and that they would consistently be sheltered. He said that the U. S would stay impartial through all war related occasions for the duration of the hour of his administration. On April sixth 1917 the U. S entered war and was on the partners Great Britain, France and Russia. The U. S entered the war on A french area with in excess of 2 million troopers battling on the front line. All officers were under the order of Major General John J. Pershing. In excess of 6 million individuals kicked the bucket in this war and in excess of 2 million honest residents passed on outside of the war. We will compose a custom exposition test on 4 Paragraph Essay on Woodrow Wilson or then again any comparable subject explicitly for you Don't WasteYour Time Recruit WRITER Just 13.90/page This was a truly horrendous timeframe for the vast majority of the world. At the point when the U. S was as yet nonpartisan people groups families were progressively finished with their son’s home. Individuals were mitigated to see their children getting back home each day without any concerns. Individuals realized that their child would get back home safe and not get back home seriously injured, damaged or not return by any stretch of the imagination. They likewise wouldn’t need to stress over losing their homes during an attack or large blast. Be that as it may, when the U. S got into WW1 the entirety of this changed drastically. Individuals got letters sent home about a passing of a relative, individuals lost their home to both adversary and agreeable troopers, some lost their primary pay port to take care of tabs and get significant required family unit things. Individuals likewise needed to change their method of living so the battling warriors could get by off of what they required, for example, garments food and different assets, for example, metal, elastic and glass. To help bolster this demonstration Wilson set up another reusing framework and preserved assets. A portion of the things that were built up are Meatless Mondays and Heatless Wednesdays. There were additionally days individuals couldn’t drive and could just buy a specific measure of gas. A few people didn't appreciate this without question. Wilson was a compelling pioneer since he concentrated on tact and money related contemplations, leaving the pursuing of the war principally in the hands of the military foundation. On the home front, he started the primary successful draft in 1917, brought billions up in war subsidizing through Liberty Bonds, forced a personal assessment, sanctioned the principal government sedate restriction, set up the War Industries Board, advanced worker's guild development, regulated agribusiness and food creation through the Lever Act, took over control of the railways, and stifled enemy of war developments. Wilson likewise had another powerful occasion. National womens testimonial was accomplished under Wilsons administration, however this libertarian achievement was balanced by the Wilson organizations isolation of the government. This prompted Wilson being one of the most known viable pioneers ever.

Saturday, July 18, 2020

Want to Master Your Synthesis Essay Assignment Heres How.

Want to Master Your Synthesis Essay Assignment Heres How. Despite the intimidation evoked by its scientific name, a synthesis essay isnt any more difficult to write than other types of essays if you know what to avoid. For example, a common mistake writers make is trying to hone in on their topic right away, just as they would with other essaysâ€"a synthesis essay just doesnt work like that.But before we delve into what not to do, lets first discuss what a synthesis essay is and the purpose for writing one. A synthesis essay assignment will test whether you not only can understand information that is presented in multiple sources, but also if you can synthesize that information on a broader scope or higher level of thinking. It tests if you can find relationships that exist between the sources combined, and then go one step further to develop your own thesis that both sources could defend.Avoid writing an argumentative essay insteadWhile sometimes confused with an argumentative essay, a synthesis essay indeed presents an argumentâ€"but ther e is more to it than that.The goal of an argumentative essay is for you to assert and defend a thesis about a controversial issue. In the process of outlining the introduction of an argumentative essay, youll state your thesis and then provide evidence that affirms your claims in the body. This evidence will be information or quotes from several reliable sourcesâ€"sources that you may or may not have accessed before. And finally, in a great argumentative essay, you will present the opposing side, as well.In contrast, a synthesis essay veers away from the argumentative essay in that the resources are usually pre-determined, often by the teacher assigning the essay, and your first task is to find a notable relationship or common thread that is between them.The synthesis essay assignmentTo better understand the thinking process that goes into a synthesis essay, lets look at an example.Jean is a college student working on a degree in Climatology. She has been given a synthesis essay ass ignment in one of her upper-level science courses. The professor of the course instructed the students to use two specific resources in their synthesis. The first is an article from Live Science entitled Global Warming: Official Report Shows Climate Change is Human-Caused. The second is an article published in Climate, a peer-reviewed journal, entitled A 133-Year Record of Climate Change and Variability from Sheffield, England.Since this is a synthesis essay assignment, Jeans first stepâ€"even before outlining or thinking about a thesisâ€"is to read the two resources in depth. This doesnt mean skimming them or reading summaries of them. Rather, this requires a thorough knowledge of the information contained within the resource. Multiple readings may be required but these will make the daunting task of writing the synthesis essay significantly less daunting.So, after Jean reads (or listens to, or watches) the assigned resources, Jean then takes a moment (or days!) to hash out the inf ormation in her head to find a common thread that runs between them. To do this, she must first ask herself the following questions:What is an idea, theme, or commonality that connects the sources to each other?What is my thesis concerning this idea, theme, or commonality?How can my thesis be given supporting evidence from both sources?By determining the answers to these important questions, Jean will use a higher-level order of thinking to find a thread of connection between the multiple sources, and then use those sources to defend a thesis that they all support. So yes, she is writing a type of argumentative essay in that she determines a thesis and substantiates it. The difference is in how and when she arrives at that thesis.Great topics versus not-so-great onesIts important at this step to be sure that the thesis you use is narrow enough to be covered in the scope of the synthesis essay assignment. When a topic that is chosen is too broad, the writer will have a difficult time writing a succinct, well-rounded synthesis essay.Lets take a look at some topics to avoid when writing your essay.A synthesis on religionA synthesis about gender issuesA synthesis covering foreign relationsChoosing one of these topics to write your synthesis essay is inviting a lot of trouble, particularly because it is impossible to cover the scope of them. No one essay can adequately discuss religion, gender issues, or foreign relations, and the result of attempting to do so will almost certainly result in a highly-disorganized synthesis essay.Better topics would be as follows.A synthesis on Christian mysticism.A synthesis on the changing role of women in America.A synthesis on the current economic ties between China and the United States.Avoid straddling the fenceAnother mistake to avoid here is not picking a side on the issue. If you begin your synthesis essay with a thesis statement that straddles the fence, so to speak, you will have a difficult (if not impossible) task ahead of you in synthesizing the sources. As with an argumentative essay, when writing a synthesis essay, you need to choose the side youre on in the argument and show evidence from your sources that will substantiate your claim.Finding common threads across various sources requires higher-order level thinking skills.So now that you understand the process of writing a synthesis essay, lets move on to the standard outline for it. As with any essay assignment, beginning the writing process without an outline is similar to running a train without tracks. The result will be writing that is disorganized, at best, and guaranteed to confuse your reader.IntroductionSo, lets begin with the introduction. The introduction of a synthesis essay is like the introduction of any other essay in that its purpose is to state the thesis and give the reader a general introduction to the topic. However, thats where the similarities between introductions for argumentative essays and introductions for synthesis essays end.The main difference is that in synthesis essay writing, you will use the introduction to state your thesis as well your sources used. In other types of essay writing, in-text citations are used throughout the body to show sources, and rarely used in the introduction. However, since the purpose of the synthesis essay is to synthesize, you need to immediately show your reader which sources you synthesized and the thesis you arrived at after doing so.Heres the basic structure of a synthesis essay introduction. Keep in mind that in the process of stating your sources, the authors name should be included, as well as the title of the source. After that, you can include a summary of the authors biographical information or research background to establish his or her expertise on the topic.For our hypothetical students synthesis essay assignment, in the introduction, Jean would write her thesis and give a brief overview of both (or all) sources used. In this case, Jean chose the following as her thesis:Global warming is often labeled as a hoax, but there is strong scientific evidence that supports it.She would then provide information and in-text citations to guide the reader directly to the information she gleaned from the sources she synthesized.BodyThe two most important rules of writing the body of a synthesis essay is to:Begin each paragraph with information; andShow examples from your sources that prove your point.The length of the body will depend on your papers length and the number of sources used. When two sources are given, you can devote one paragraph to one source and one paragraph to the other.Avoid summarizing the sourcesThis is the point where a lot of writers fail at the task of writing a great synthesis essay. Remember at the beginning when we discussed how knowing what not to do will make the assignment easier? Heres a great example of that.Many writers will make the mistake of using the paragraphs within the body to summarize the informa tion from each source. However, in a synthesis essay assignment, your task is not to explain what the source is aboutâ€"rather, your task is to show a theme or idea that is a common thread in both sources. This is why reading both sources carefully and fully before beginning the writing process is so crucial.Lets take a step back and look at the difference between writing a summary and writing a synthesis. First, and most importantly, determining a summary is a basic reading technique, while synthesis is an advanced level technique. In writing a summary, you are presenting a cursory overview of the source, while a synthesis requires a focus on the main ideas and the details that connect them. A synthesis should show how the writer achieves new insights from the information presented in the sources, while a summary simply demonstrates an understanding of the information. Basically, a summary is reviewing what has already been written, while a synthesis is a new idea that develops aft er reading and carefully analyzing multiple sources.Here are examples to show the difference of Jean summarizing versus synthesizing.SummaryIn her article, Global Warming: Official Report Shows Climate Change is Human-Caused, the author uses an infographic based on the U.S. National Climate Assessment report showing the following: 1) all signs point to global warming, 2) there are both human and natural influences on climate change, and 3) there are observable trends toward heavier precipitation.SynthesisIf global warming were a hoax, its a well-documented one. In her article, Global Warming: Official Report Shows Climate Change is Human-Caused, the author uses data taken from the U.S. National Climate Assessment to show a definite global warming trend that includes increased precipitation. Those same trends are also shown in an article published in the Climate Journal entitled A 133-Year Record of Climate Change and Variability from Sheffield, England. In their longitudinal study, the authors point to 133 years of recorded data that show that the planet is warming. The numbers, in these cases, do not lie.An image of the earth taken by four different satellites. Source: NASA.ConclusionNow that youve made it through the most difficult part, the conclusion should be easy. In a synthesis essay, the conclusion is simply a reminder of your thesis and how it is supported in the resources you used. This is the place where you can suggest further research on the topic, or show limitations in the sources presented. If there are other sides to the topic that you havent covered anywhere else in your paper, bring those up too. Then point out why your thesis holds more weight.

Thursday, May 21, 2020

Willy Loman Analysis - 1015 Words

The American Dream is what many people strive for. What makes The Dream impossible for some is a hamartia, or a fatal flaw. Willy Loman, from Death of a Salesman, is a common man trying to achieve The American Dream. This aspiration compounded with a fatal flaw is what makes him an apt subject for tragedy in the highest sense. This fatal flaw is his incapacity to make proper life decisions. The poor decisions Willy makes spiral his life into a rut that ultimately claims his life, leaving his family with nothing. Similarly, the unnamed main character (who, for simplification, will be referred to as Gary) from Weird Al Yankovic’s â€Å"Trapped in the Drive-Thru,† as the name suggests, also finds himself in a rut that ultimately leaves him worse†¦show more content†¦Willy decides to kill himself so that his family may collect his life insurance money. Ben is right when he expresses his worry to Willy that, â€Å"You don’t want to make a fool of yourself. [ the insurance company] might not honor the policy† (Miller 93). They do not honor the policy; Willy’s family is left not only without their patriarch, but also without a source of income. Willy compounds his lifetime mistakes by teaching his sons the same principles on which he makes his life decisions, that as we know, are invalid. Biff does not go to college to follow his passion for football while Happy never even finds his passion. These troubles could have been avoided had Willy realized his poor decisions and taught his sons more accurate life lessons, so they do not make his mistakes, to which they are now tethered. Willy was not the only one to fail due to his poor decisions, but Gary too. The theme of poor decisions deeply connects to Gary’s situation and result characteristically of Willy’s life. Gary is just a guy sitting at home, watching TV, when his wife asks what he wants to do for dinner. They have a brief argument about where to go to dinner when Gary’s wife asks, â€Å"‘Baby, cant we just go out to dinner, please?’ I [Gary] says ‘No’† (Yancovic). Even though Gary’s wife wants to go to a nice restaurant, Gary makes the executive decision to go to the drive thru at a fast food joint.Show MoreRelatedCharacter Analysis Of Willy Loman830 Words   |  4 PagesWilly Loman was portrayed as an impatient and insecure man, father and husband who only wanted to be successful for his family. Even though he was a salesman, he had lots of economic issues with house disposals. Biff Loman and Happy loman were both his sons, whom he expecte d a lot from and Linda Loman was his wife who loved him more than he loved himself. Whenever things went wrong for Willy, he would throw a big fuss and always wanted things his way. â€Å"Howard: †¦ there just is no spot here for youRead MoreCharacter Analysis Of Willy Loman1110 Words   |  5 PagesWilly Loman Willy Loman is the centerpiece of all problems that arise in the Loman family from the â€Å"hell† Linda lives to Biff inability to find a place in the world. Willy is the victim of various flashbacks throughout the play, â€Å"Young Biff and Young Happy appear†¦Ã¢â‚¬  (Miller Act I: 1565). Due to the circumstances of Willy, the past is constantly regurgitated to his sons, specifically concerning how to where seemingly set up for fame. As such the boys specifically, Biff, are uncertain if they are contentRead MoreWilly Loman Attitude Analysis708 Words   |  3 Pages A bad attitude is like a flat tire, you can’t get very far until you change it. In the play, Death of a Salesman, Arthur Miller discusses the topic of the American Dream. He believes that everyone wants to achieve it. Willy Loman searches for his American Dream throughout the play. However, his poor attitude and failure to see life from a different perspective keeps him from achieving it. Imagine having a job you love, that pays a lot of money. Because of that job, you own a big house to shelterRead MoreWilly Loman And Modernism Analysis725 Words   |  3 Pagestheir lives destroying themselves from the inside. The play shows the struggle between the past (Willy Loman) and the reality (Biff Loman). Willy Loman is not able to perceive the reality and lives in his illusionary world, while Biff is the person who understands the decline of the outdated values and realizes a strong necessity to reconsider these values to find his real place in life. Willy Loman is no longer able to resists the new requirements of the time and dies in a road accident, symbolizingRead MoreWilly Loman Tragic Hero Analysis956 Words   |  4 Pagesown destruction†. These two concepts apply to the play in the sense that Willy Loman is a man of good intentions, but there is often an undesirable outcome of them. Also, Willy is a victim of himself and his own beliefs. Arthur Miller states i n his New York Times article that he believes â€Å"the common man is as apt a subject for tragedy in its highest sense as kings were†. Based on this quote, it can be concluded that Willy Loman is indeed a tragic hero because of his error in judgement, a reversal ofRead MoreWilly Loman Tragic Hero Analysis971 Words   |  4 PagesDeath of a Salesman by Arthur Miller is a play of multiple tragedies. The word tragedy is defined as â€Å"a dreadful, or fatal event or affair; disaster†. The main character, Willy Loman, shows how one dream can become a disaster through his impractical dreams and failing at achieving these goals. Not only does he fail at his dreams, he participates in an affair that is against morals. The idea of a tragic hero is defined as â€Å"a great or virtuous character in a dramatic tragedy who is destined for downfallRead MoreWilly Loman And The American Dream Analysis1075 Words   |  5 Pagesplay, Death of a Salesman, Willy Lomans pursuit of the American Dream is characterized by his selfishness, demonstrating how the American Dream can subtly turn into the American Nightmare. However, Willy’s role is quite important because he often led to failure through the creation of the American Dream and the real world. To fully understand the storyline of Willy Loman in Death of a Salesman, one must evaluate each member of the Loman family. The death of Willy Loman implies that the American DreamRead MoreAnalysis Of Willy Loman And The American Dream1553 Words   |  7 PagesIn one of Arthur Miller’s play, â€Å"Death of a Salesman† written in 1949; it uncovers the betrayal of the American Dream. Willy Loman, one of the characters in â€Å"Death of a Salesman† who believes that finding success is very easy, but in reality’s he only finds his success in own imagination. In Act one of the play, Willy Loman stated â€Å"Bigger than Uncle Charley! Because Uncle Charley is not †¦ Liked. Heâ€⠄¢s Liked, but not well Liked (p21).† This quote expresses that being liked is not the key to successRead MoreCharacter Analysis Of Willy Loman In Death Of A Salesman838 Words   |  4 PagesWilly Loman from â€Å"Death of a Salesman† by Arthur Miller is a tragic hero. A tragic hero is someone who has a judgement error and inevitably ends up destroying himself. Miller believes that the common man makes the best tragic hero as we want to be seen as a image and or not be thrown away. That fear, which he believes is very strong today, is what makes us the best tragic hero. I would take the stance that Willy Loman is a tragic hero. Willy starts to show signs of flaw of judgement, reversal ofRead MoreAnalysis Of The Apprenticeship Of Duddy Kravitz, And Willy Loman Essay2680 Words   |  11 Pagesincontestable social influence. Duddy Kravitz in The Apprenticeship of Duddy Kravitz by Mordecai Richler, and Willy Loman in Death of a Salesman by Arthur Miller thoroughly exempli fy this drive for excess wealth and power. When analyzing the characters of Duddy Kravitz and Willy Loman, it is made distinctly evident that Duddy Kravitz is successful to a greater degree, when compared to Willy Loman, in achieving the generic and superficial capitalistic views of success. This discrepancy between the two

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

An Analysis Of Adam Bede - 1693 Words

In Chapter 17 of Adam Bede, â€Å"In Which the Story Pauses a Little†, George Eliot associates herself with fidelity in the description of rural life and customs similarly to the way Elizabeth Gaskell provides readers with an authentic relationship between class and gender in an industrialized Milton Northern. Eliot pauses her story to expand of her principle of writing with authenticity, urging artists not to focus on the â€Å"divine beauty of form,† but to â€Å"give the loving pains of a life to†¦ commonplace things† (756). Her language of a realist’s idea is literal, functioning like a painting. She recognizes that the temporality of narration, â€Å"an account of men and things as they have mirrored themselves in mind,† is not a static spatial picture (755). Her determined realism is the depiction of everyday incidents and the qualities that accompany them. For Eliot, the only way to give an accurate account of the truth is to capture the vulgarity of images or subjects. Eliot would approve Gaskell’s use of language Gaskell in her novel, North and South. Gaskell wants to accurately depict the real life, and she focuses on Margaret in her new social environment. With her own experiences of industrialization, Gaskell seeks to represent the conditions faced by workers to depict such changes seen from rural to an urbanized city. Thus, she increases the reader’s awareness of these issues at hand. Through her characters, such as Margret and Mr. Thornton, Gaskell is able to reflect on theShow MoreRelatedAnalysis Of George Eliot s Adam Bede1722 Words   |  7 PagesIn George Eliot’s Adam Bede we witness an illustration of the discussion between not only crime, but morality, values, and extraordinarily, beauty as well. The so-called â€Å"universal ideal† of femininity is, according to our novelist’s own interpretation, being interrogated sternly. Unfortunately, what we find in Eliotâ€⠄¢s own interrogation method of these structures is just another, albeit different, version of Liberal Humanism with its own stereotypes, judgement calls, and unfair half-treatments of

Relationship of Neanderthals to Modern Humans Free Essays

Relationship of Neanderthals to Modern Humans After extracting ancient DNA from the 40,000-year-old bones of Neanderthals, scientists have obtained a draft sequence of the Neanderthal genome, yielding important new insights into the evolution of modern humans. No other ancient people have aroused more controversy and confusion over the last century and a half than have the Neanderthals (3,4). There is an on-going debate as to whether they should be considered Homo sapiens. We will write a custom essay sample on Relationship of Neanderthals to Modern Humans or any similar topic only for you Order Now While the idea that modern humans originated in Africa and spread out to other parts of the world is widely accepted, several scenarios have been proposed to account for the replacement of neanderthal populations. The multi regional hypothesis holds that neanderthal populations in Eurasia and Africa were held together by gene flow. Fossil and genetic evidence supports an African origin for Modern Humans (1,3,5,9,10). A decade after scientists first cracked the human genome, researchers announced that they have done the same for Neanderthals, the species of hominid that existed from roughly 400,000 to 30,000 years ago, when their closest relatives, early modern humans, may have driven them to extinction (1,3,5,9,10). Led by ancient-DNA expert Svante Paabo of Germany’s Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, scientists reconstructed about 60% of the Neanderthal genome by analyzing tiny chains of ancient DNA extracted from bone fragments of three female Neanderthals excavated in the late 1970s and early ’80s from a cave in Croatia (6,8). The bones are 38,000 to 44,000 years old. The genetic information turned up some intriguing findings, indicating, for instance, that at some point after early modern humans migrated out of Africa, they mingled and mated with Neanderthals, possibly in the Middle East or North Africa as much as 80,000 years ago (5,7,10). If that is the case, it occurred significantly earlier than scientists who support the interbreeding hypothesis would have expected. Comparisons with DNA from modern humans show that some Neanderthal DNA has survived to the present (3,4,7). Moreover, by analyzing ancient DNA alongside modern samples, scientists were able to identify a handful of genetic changes that evolved in modern humans sometime after their ancestors and Neanderthals diverged, 440,000 to 270,000 years ago (2,4). Researchers compared the Neanderthal genome with the genomes of five living people: one San from southern Africa, one Yoruba from West Africa, one Papua New Guinean, one Han Chinese and one French person (2,4,6). Scientists discovered that 1% to 4% of the latter three DNA samples is shared with Neanderthals — proof that Neanderthals and early modern humans interbred. The absence of Neanderthal DNA in the genomes of the two present-day Africans indicates that interbreeding occurred after some root population of early modern humans left Africa but before the species evolved into distinct groups in Europe and Asia (1,3,5,9,10). All studies of Neanderthal genomic DNA use material obtained from fossilized Neanderthal bones that are tens of thousands of years old. As one might expect, the quality of the material that can be recovered from such specimens is very poor, as DNA degrades over time. Consequently, there is wide variability in DNA preservation among available Neanderthal specimens, and most Neanderthal bones yield no usable DNA (2,3,4). When present, Neanderthal genomic DNA is recovered in short (50- to 100-bp) fragments (2,3,4) The information content of Neanderthal DNA is also degraded: Individual nucleotides are subject to chemical modification, with deamination of cytosine to uracil the most common lesion (2,4). Moreover, the fragments of Neanderthal genomic DNA are mixed with microbial contaminants that constitute 90% of the recovered DNA. The amount of DNA damage and microbial contamination are dependent on ambient environmental conditions: The ancient specimens that have provided the most intact DNA are mammoth remains recovered from permafrost. These specimens often include preserved hair shafts and soft tissues from which relatively high-quality DNA can be recovered (2,4,5). None of the Neanderthal specimens providing the DNA for whole-genome sequencing approach this level of preservation (2,4,5,6). In addition to these challenges, ancient specimens frequently become contaminated with modern human DNA during handling and DNA extraction (2). This poses obvious problems for distinguishing modern human from Neanderthal DNA, since the frequency of single-base mismatches between the two genomes is estimated to be How to cite Relationship of Neanderthals to Modern Humans, Essay examples

Sunday, April 26, 2020

Social Psychology Interpersonal And Group Perspectives Essays

Social Psychology: Interpersonal And Group Perspectives Social Psychology: Interpersonal and Group Perspectives In our textbook, prejudice is defined as: a form of thinking whereby an individual forms an unfavorable attitude directed towards groups of people, based on insufficient or incorrect evidence about these groups. Prejudice has been a part of society for as long as society has been. There are many different theories on the reasons for why people form prejudices. The theory of social categorization states that it is human nature to put people into categories based on certain characteristics. Which is also how we form stereotypes. Stereotypes give us a preconceived notion of how people of a certain group are going to act before we have experienced it firsthand. Basically, stereotypes are generalizations. They may apply to some members of a particular group but definitely not everyone. Another theory, illusory correlation, states that we tend to notice unusual behavior that occurs in minority groups rather than the same behavior that would occur in a majority group. The theory that I find most interesting is the social-identity theory, which states that people are prejudice in order to increase there self-esteem by believing that other groups are inferior to them. After reading about all the different reasons for prejudice, I believe that it is a combination of all the theories mentioned above. I also strongly believe that the way a person is brought up strongly ties into their beliefs. If a child is brought up listening to his/hers parents talking negatively about a certain group of people it often leads to the child having the same beliefs as their parents. Another possible cause is if someone has a bad or traumatizing experience. For instance, if someone is robbed by a person of a different race they may than believe that everyone of that race is a thief and therefore they form a prejudice against that group of people. Experience is an important factor in why some people become prejudice or not. Imagine you have grown up on a farm in Idaho your entire life. You have never seen or met an African American person first hand, but your whole life you have been told that they are terrible people who deal drugs and murder innocent people. Although they have never experienced them firsthand, automatically this person will have a negative outlook on that group of people. The point I am trying to make is that your different experiences and what you have been taught plays a big role in the prejudices that you will form. Usually if you are immersed by all different kinds of people and have known people from all different cultures, you will tend to have a more open mind. Ignorance is the biggest reason for why we form prejudices in the first place. If we think back to the fifties and sixties, the amount of prejudice and racial discrimination has been reduced dramatically. However, as much as society tries to stress the importance of equality there is still a great amount of discrimination still going on in the world. So, how can we reduce prejudice effectively? I believe that a major part in this process is educating people from young ages about prejudice and how they need to be open to all types of people. Schools need to be culturally diversified so that child can experience other types of people firsthand. I know that isn't as easy as it sounds, especially when we put into perspective financial situations and where schools are located, but I think it is important that from a young age that people experience all types of cultures. Another way to educate people is by stressing that people are all different, whether it is from the way they dress or they way that they talk. Instead of looking down at other people's differences w e need to be taught to celebrate them. In conclusion, I believe that prejudice is something that still plagues our society. I feel that it has definitely has improved over time and if things keep progressing, prejudice could possibly cease to exist in the future. As long as we keep educating our children and society, I think we are heading towards the right track.